Glossary


OUTs

Value OUTs
Great .150
Good .100
Average .000
Weak -.025
Poor -.075

OUTs is a complete offensive stat that weights quality of batted ball contact, walks, and strikeouts. It is similar in many ways to xOBA and wOBA, but with more emphasis on predicting future runs scored. The league average score is always set to .000, and higher values are better. An elite batter will have a score close to .150 or better, while a weak hitter may have a score closer to -.025.

OUTs = - ( .77 × W ) - ( .17 × K ) + ( .98 × BB ) + ( .69 × HBP ) + ( 1.52 × S ) + ( 2.52 × sHR ) PA
 

Expected Runs Added

(xRAD)
Value xRAD
Great 100
Good 75
Average 55
Weak 40
Poor 30

Expected Runs Added is a counting stat that estimates how much a batter may have added to their team's offense with respect to their overall batted ball quality, plate appearance total, team batted ball quality, and team plate appearance total. Generally, a result around 55 runs is about average, and batters with over 75 runs should be seen as very good offensive contributors.

 

xOBA+

Value xOBA+
Great 140
Good 120
Average 100
Weak 90
Poor 75

xOBA+ is a park and league adjusted metric for xOBA. A score of 100 is league average, and each point above or below that figure shows the percent difference from the mean. So for example, a batter with a 115 xOBA+ has hit 15% above average, and a batter with an 80 xOBA+ is 20% below average.

 

scFIP

scFIP = 13 × x H R + 3 × B B - 2 × K I P + C

Statcast Fielding Independent Pitching, scFIP, uses the expected home run rate generated by xStats to estimate a pitcher's ERA assuming league average results on his batted balls, taking into account launch angle and exit velocity. Launch angle and exit velocity can predict with reasonable certainty whether a ball will go over a wall, but other factors, such as wind and air density, can sometimes play a significant role in the final outcome. scFIP gives a pitcher credit for his ability to control quality of contact, but grants him the assumption of average results on that contact. Over time, if the same type of contact is surrendered, you'd expect the home run rate, and thus his FIP, to approach his scFIP.


Dribble Balls

(DB%)
Year BIP H 1B 2B 3B HR AVG SLG BABIP wOBA
All 107,594 13,385 12,528 834 21 2 .128 .137 .124 .112
2015 35,630 4,465 4,179 279 5 2 .130 .138 .125 .114
2016 33,555 4,088 3,852 228 8 0 .126 .133 .122 .110
2017 34,150 4,321 4,023 292 6 0 .130 .139 .127 .114
2018 4,259 511 474 35 2 0 .123 .133 .120 .111

Dribble balls consist of weakly hit ground balls, and bloops that rarely leave the infield. They typically have low exit velocity and/or extremely low launch angles. These batted balls are reasonably prevalent, consisting of about 25% of all batted balls, but have limited value given their extremely low extra base hit rate and low batting average. This stat may be represented as a fraction of total Balls In Play (DB%).


Ground Balls

(GB%)
Year BIP H 1B 2B 3B HR AVG SLG BABIP wOBA
All 81,285 29,943 27,262 2,510 169 2 .368 .404 .368 .337
2015 27,171 10,080 9,188 829 61 2 .371 .406 .371 .340
2016 26,323 9,627 8,776 805 46 0 .366 .400 .366 .333
2017 24,428 9,048 8,226 765 57 0 .370 .406 .370 .338
2018 3,363 1,188 1,072 111 5 0 .353 .389 .353 .329

Ground Balls fall somewhere between Dribble Balls and Low Drives, both in terms of exit velocity and launch angle and in terms of value. These are a common class of batted ball, composing about 20% of all batted balls, and they are largely composed of sharply hit balls on the ground, but some of them may be softer hit bloops that just barely clear the infielder's reach. They rarely result in extra base hits, except when hit down the line and into the corner. This stat may be represented as a fraction of total Balls In Play (GB%).


Low Drive

(LD%)
Year BIP H 1B 2B 3B HR AVG SLG BABIP wOBA
All 68,420 51,962 41,589 9,526 837 10 .763 .928 .760 .727
2015 22,161 16,765 13,349 3,121 291 4 .760 .928 .757 .729
2016 21,852 16,562 13,350 2,923 288 1 .761 .922 .758 .723
2017 21,554 16,441 13,119 3,086 231 5 .766 .932 .763 .727
2018 2,853 2,194 1,771 396 27 0 .772 .930 .769 .745

Low Drives have very high success rates and overall value, but are largely composed of singles as opposed to extra base hits. Low Drives can have low exit velocity and higher launch angle, or a higher exit velocity and a lower launch angle. Just about 17% of batted balls fall into this class, but this number may not be stable or predictive for any given batter. In essence, this is a class of batted ball that embodies the "BABIP is luck" aspect of DIPS theory. Batters with high or low LD% will likely regress towards the mean. This stat may be represented as a fraction of total Balls In Play (LD%).


High Drive

(HD%)
Year BIP H 1B 2B 3B HR AVG SLG BABIP wOBA
All 39995 27256 1131 9140 1135 15850 .691 2.186 .472 1.154
2015 11901 7958 309 2758 395 4496 .677 2.127 .468 1.147
2016 13016 8934 382 3052 372 5128 .697 2.193 .483 1.156
2017 13078 9162 391 2902 323 5546 .710 2.274 .480 1.178
2018 2000 1202 49 428 45 680 .612 1.915 .396 1.037

High Drives are the highest quality batted balls. They only represent about 10% of batted balls, but 90% home runs and 34% of doubles. High Drives should be seen as a measure of power, and give good insight on the raw skill of a batter. The number of High Drives is largely driven by exit velocity, but it is constrained by the launch angles most likely to produce high value batted balls. Increases of batted balls in this class represent either an increase in these ideal launch angles, an increase in exit velocity, or both. This stat may be represented as a fraction of total Balls In Play (HD%).


Fly Ball

(FB%)
Year BIP H 1B 2B 3B HR AVG SLG BABIP wOBA
All 41,535 9,724 3,997 3,574 474 1,679 .242 .480 .202 .291
2015 13,346 2,944 1,168 1,133 166 477 .229 .454 .192 .277
2016 13,160 3,132 1,340 1,120 145 527 .246 .481 .206 .293
2017 13,276 3,263 1,298 1,184 147 634 .254 .517 .208 .307
2018 1,753 385 191 137 16 41 .227 .400 .201 .260

Fly Balls represent batted balls that are close to having high value, but don't quite hit the mark, either due to exit velocity being a tough too low or launch angle being a touch too high. When pulled down the lines, these batted balls can supply solid value, but when hit towards the middle third of the field they will often turn into easy outs. About 10% of batted balls fall into this class. This stat may be represented as a fraction of total Balls In Play (FB%).


Pop Up

(PU%)
Year BIP H 1B 2B 3B HR AVG SLG BABIP wOBA
All 70,771 1,515 595 749 100 71 .022 .039 .020 .025
2015 22,119 457 188 222 27 20 .021 .037 .020 .024
2016 22,680 459 184 225 24 26 .021 .037 .019 .023
2017 22,913 539 199 273 43 24 .024 .043 .023 .027
2018 3,059 60 24 29 6 1 .020 .035 .019 .023

Pop Ups represent the weakest class of batted balls. These are balls that either lack the exit velocity to enter the High Drive section, and thus fall into the "dead zone", or they have launch angles that exceed the acceptable range for batted balls. About 17% of batted balls fall into this class. This stat may be represented as a fraction of total Balls In Play (PU%).


Value Hits

(VH%)
Year BIP H 1B 2B 3B HR AVG SLG BABIP wOBA
2015 10681 9226 810 3699 381 4336 .868 2.511 .771 1.397
2016 11083 9709 740 3706 355 4908 .882 2.619 .778 1.417
2017 10940 9689 680 3495 264 5250 .890 2.705 .780 1.436
All 32704 28624 2230 10900 1000 14494 .880 2.613 .776 1.417

You will see this stat thrown around quite liberally when talking about xStats, this is a unique measure which aims to count the number of extremely high quality pieces of contact produced by a batter or surrendered by a pitcher. As you can see in the stats above, Value Hits are the highest quality batted balls in the game. They register as extra base hits 81% of the time, and account for 85% of all home runs, 43% of doubles, and 37% of triples. On the main stats sheets you will see the stat expressed as VH%, which measures Value Hits per Plate Appearance.


Poor Hits

(PH%)
Year BIP H 1B 2B 3B HR AVG SLG BABIP wOBA
2015 29660 413 344 56 9 4 .014 .017 .014 .013
2016 29611 377 299 68 8 2 .013 .016 .013 .012
2017 31539 377 307 59 5 6 .012 .015 .012 .011
All 90810 1167 950 183 22 12 .013 .016 .013 .012

This is the opposite of Value Hits, and aims to measure the absolute worst contact in baseball. Poorly Hit balls are near automatic outs, with an on base percentage of .018. Even on the rare occasions when these balls become hits, they are kept to singles 85% of the time. On the main stats sheets you will see the stat expressed as PH%, which measures Poor Hits per Plate Appearance.


Ideally Hit

Year BIP H 1B 2B 3B HR AVG SLG BABIP wOBA
2015 8055 5343 59 1181 246 3857 .672 2.336 .354 1.228
2016 8899 6110 85 1281 255 4489 .698 2.440 .368 1.249
2017 8921 6283 68 1180 222 4813 .714 2.539 .358 1.277
All 25875 17736 212 3642 723 13159 .695 2.442 .360 1.252

While not as commonly cited as Value Hits, Ideally Hit Balls- also referred to as Ideal Hits, or Ideal Contact- will be referenced occasionally. These batted balls have a vertical angle between 21 and 36 degrees and an exit velocity of at least 96 mph. This stat is not tracked on the primary stats sheet, but there is a separate link to an Ideally Hit Balls Sheet which contains many different stats you may find useful.


Well Struck

Year BIP H 1B 2B 3B HR AVG SLG BABIP wOBA
2015 17968 6669 285 1921 360 4103 .383 1.242 .185 .652
2016 18656 7505 359 2020 362 4764 .415 1.357 .197 .696
2017 18696 7787 323 1968 356 5143 .429 1.426 .195 .719
All 55320 21961 967 5909 1075 14010 .409 1.343 .193 .689

This is the little brother of Ideally Hit.  Where Ideally Hit Measures batted balls with an exit velocity of at least 96 mph, Well Struck measures those with at least 80 mph. Otherwise, they both measure balls with a vertical launch angle between 21 and 36 degrees.  This stat is occasionally referenced, but isn't explicitly tracked on any sheet or source.